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ADHD – Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

The most commonly diagnosed childhood disorder is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a developmental disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. ADHD is very controversial and as likely misunderstood as understood.A groundbreaking and controversial book recently published, by behavioral neurologist Dr. Richard Saul, MD, draws on five decades of experience treating thousands of patients labeled with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder—one of the fastest growing and widely diagnosed conditions today—to argue that ADHD is actually a cluster of symptoms stemming from over 20 other conditions and disorders.According to recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an estimated 6.4 million children between the ages of four and seventeen have been diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. While many skeptics believe that ADHD is a fabrication of drug companies and the medical establishment, the symptoms of attention-deficit and hyperactivity are all too real for millions of individuals who often cannot function without treatment

Click here for a preview of Dr. Saul’s book.

More on ADHD:

Typical treatment involves drugs that increase dopamine and serotonin levels in the brain – two key nuerotransmitters that improve behavior. We believe most doctors are not fully aware of natural nutrients that target brain performance and nuerotransmitter balancing and production. These brain targeted nutrients should be considered before prescribing drugs when possible. These same nutrients that may help ADHD also support improved memory and better decision making and therefore have application for addiction and age related brain performance decline conditions.

Click here to read Dr. Lance Hering’s article on Autism and ADD natural cures.

Click here to read Dr. Pingel’s related article on brain nutrient deficiencies causing depression and anxiety.

Click here to read about addiction treatment breakthroughs by improving brain neurotransmitter performance naturally (without drugs) with targeted essential amino acids nutritional therapy and more related breakthrough information.

Click here to read about some of cannabis’s medical and nutritional properties, more pointedly CBDs, which may prove to be miraculously effective on brain related conditions of concern including ADHD/ADD.

Some of the better known natural nutrients and herbs that can help brain function include:

Vitamins and Minerals

  • Magnesium (200 mg per day) — Symptoms of magnesium deficiency include irritability, decreased attention span, and mental confusion. Some experts believe that children with ADHD may be showing the effects of mild magnesium deficiency. In one preliminary study of 75 magnesium-deficient children with ADHD, those who received magnesium supplements showed an improvement in behavior compared to those who did not receive the supplements.
  • Vitamin B6 — Adequate levels of vitamin B6 are needed for the body to make and use brain chemicals, including serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, the chemicals affected in children with ADHD. One preliminary study found that B6 pyridoxine was slightly more effective than Ritalin in improving behavior among hyperactive children. However, the study used a high dose of B6, which could cause nerve damage (although none occurred in the study). Other studies have shown that B6 has no effect on behavior. Because high doses can be dangerous, do not give your child B6 without your doctor’s supervision.
  • Zinc (35 mg per day) — Zinc regulates the activity of brain chemicals, fatty acids, and melatonin, all of which are related behavior. Several studies have found that zinc may help improve behavior, but only slightly. Higher doses of zinc can be dangerous, so talk to your doctor before giving zinc to a child or taking it yourself.
  • Essential fatty acids — Fatty acids, such as those found in fish and fish oil (omega-3 fatty acids) and evening primrose oil (omega-6 fatty acids), are “good fats” that play a key role in normal brain function. Experts have suggested them as a treatment for ADHD. The results of studies are mixed, but research continues. Omega-3 fatty acids are believed good for heart health in adults however there is evidence the manner of getting these good essential omega fatty acids into your body is crucial. If you want to try EFA supplements to see if it reduces ADHD symptoms in you or your child, talk to your doctor about the best dose.
  • L-carnitine — L-carnitine is formed from an amino acid and helps cells in the body produce energy. One study found that 54% of a group of boys with ADHD showed improvement in behavior when taking L-carnitine, but more research is needed to confirm any benefit. Because L-carnitine has not been studied for safety in children, talk to your doctor before giving a child L-carnitine.
  • Serine
  • DHEA
  • Melatonin
  • Vinpocetine

Herbs

Herbs are generally a safe way to strengthen and tone the body’s systems. As with any therapy, you should work with your health care provider to get your problem diagnosed before starting any treatment. You may use herbs as dried extracts (capsules, powders, teas), glycerites (glycerine extracts), or tinctures (alcohol extracts). Unless otherwise indicated, you should make teas with 1 tsp. herb per cup of hot water. Steep covered 5 – 10 minutes for leaf or flowers, and 10 – 20 minutes for roots. Drink 2 – 4 cups per day. You may use tinctures alone or in combination as noted.

Several herbal remedies for ADHD are sold in the United States and Europe. But few scientific studies have been done to see whether these herbs improve symptoms of ADHD. One or more of the following calming herbs may be recommended for people with ADHD:

  • Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile)
  • Valerian (Valerian officinalis)
  • Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis)
  • Passionflower (Passiflora incarnata)
  • Gingko (Gingko biloba) — used to improve memory and mental sharpness.
  • American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium ) and gingko — One study suggests that gingko in combination with ginseng may improve symptoms of ADHD

Brad Chase, President of ProgressiveHealth.com, contributed an article to Natural News.com on natural herbs used to treat ADD/ADHD by practitioners of Chinese herbal medicine.

According to Brad Chase, the following six Chinese herbs are beneficial in treating both children and adults with ADHD:

Thorowax root

Thorowax root has cell-stimulating, anti-inflammatory, and sedative effects. When used to treat ADHD, the sedative effects of the herbs can help control impulsive behavior and prevent hyperactivity. The sedative effects are extremely mild, and provide just enough sedation to benefit ADHD – not remove all personality from the child or adult taking the herb.

Oriental ginseng

Ginseng is an herb known for its concentration-boosting effects, which is why many memory-boosting supplements contain ginseng. Ginseng also increases endurance and relieves stress. The herb is known for its ability to improve oxygen flow to the brain, which encourages normal brain development. As some children with ADHD have a developmental delay of about three years, this is an effective herb for treating ADHD.

Skullcap root

Skullcap root is an herb that protects the nervous system. In many children with ADHD, the balance of the chemicals in the brain controlling the nervous system is off. Skullcap root can help retain the normal balance of chemicals in the brain. Skullcap root is particularly helpful for preventing hyperactivity and calming the nerves.

Red jujube

The jujube has many helpful properties, but for ADHD, the herb is more effective for calming the nerves and mind and creating a peaceful effect in the body.

Ginkgo biloba

Ginkgo biloba is an herb that is known for its ability to boost cognitive function in the brain. Ginkgo increases the amine neurotransmitter substances in the brain, which helps counteract some of the chemical deficiencies often seen in children with ADHD. Ginkgo can calm the mind and promote a peaceful spirit.

Poria

Poria has many benefits, including improving digestion and soothing the nerves. Many children with ADHD have poor digestion, and supplementing with poria can improve the health of the intestines and promote the elimination of toxins that can contribute to ADHD symptoms.

Chinese herbs in scientific studies

The theory behind Chinese herbs for ADHD sound beneficial, but without scientific backing, it is all postulation. However, several studies have looked at Chinese herbs and how they can benefit ADHD.

In 1990, the Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou College of TCM looked at 100 children with ADHD. Eighty children were given Chinese herbs. At the end of the three-month study, 23 children were completely symptom free, 46 children showed significant improvement, and 10 had higher IQ scores.

In 1994, the Shaanxi College of Traditional Chinese Medicine examined 66 children with ADHD. The children were given Chinese herbs to help control their ADHD symptoms. Eighty-five percent of the children who took the Chinese herbs had improvements in symptoms.

The Affiliated Hospital of Shandong College of TCM looked at another group of children with ADHD in 1995. This time, the children took liquid Chinese herbs. The effectiveness rate of the herbs was 94 percent.

More information on Chinese Herbs for ADD/ADHD if you are looking for alternatives to Ritalin and other ADHD medications

http://www.chineseherbshealing.com/jujube-fruit-da-zao/

http://www.aompress.com/book_herbology/pdfs/ChaiHu.pdf

http://www.chineseherbshealing.com/poria-fu-ling/

http://science.naturalnews.com/pubmed/7967691.html

http://www.progressivehealth.com

Sleep disorders are also often associated with other brain performance issues such as ADD/ADHD.

For an article listing sleep nutrients [CLICK HERE].

More Traditional Information on ADHD

Although many people sometimes have difficulty sitting still, paying attention, or controlling impulsive behavior, people with ADHD find that these symptoms greatly interfere with everyday life. Generally, these symptoms appear before age 7 and can lead to problems in school and in social settings. One- to two-thirds of all children with ADHD continue to have symptoms when they grow up. A diagnosis can be controversial, since there are no lab tests for ADHD and no objective way to measure a child’s behavior. Some experts also disagree about the best way to treat ADHD, but taking action early can improve a child’s educational and social development.

A person is considered to have ADHD if they have at least 6 symptoms from the following categories, lasting for at least 2 months. In diagnosing children, the symptoms must appear before age 7 and pose a significant challenge to everyday functioning in at least two areas of life (usually home and school). Most children do not show all the symptoms, and they may be different in boys and girls (boys may be more hyperactive and girls more inattentive).

Inattention

  • Fails to pay close attention to details or makes careless mistakes
  • Has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
  • Does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
  • Does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish tasks
  • Has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
  • Avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as school work, homework)
  • Loses things needed for tasks or activities
  • Is easily distracted
  • Is forgetful in daily activities

Hyperactivity and Impulsivity

  • Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat
  • Does not remain seated when expected to
  • Runs or climbs excessively in inappropriate situations (in teens or adults, may be feelings of restlessness)
  • Has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly
  • Acts as if “driven by a motor”
  • Talks excessively
  • Blurts out answers before questions are completed
  • Has difficulty waiting his or her turn
  • Interrupts or intrudes on others

No one is sure what causes ADHD. Although environment may play a role, researchers are now looking to find answers in the structure of the brain.

  • Altered brain function — Brain scans have shown differences in the brains of ADHD children compared to those of non-ADHD children. For example, many children with ADHD tend to have altered brain activity in the prefrontal cortex, a part of the brain thought to be the command center. This may affect their ability to control impulsive and hyperactive behaviors. Researchers also believe hyperactive behavior in children can be caused by too much slow-wave (or theta) activity in certain regions of the brain.
  • Genetics — ADHD seems to run in families.
  • Maternal or childhood exposure to certain toxins — Women who smoke, drink, and are exposed to PCBs during pregnancy are more likely to have children with ADHD. Children who are exposed to lead or PCBs are more likely to develop the disorder.

Risk factors for ADHD include:

  • Heredity — children with ADHD usually have at least one first-degree relative who also has the disorder.
  • Gender — ADHD is four to nine times more common in boys than in girls. Some experts believe that the disorder is underdiagnosed in girls, however.
  • Prenatal and early postnatal health — maternal drug, alcohol, and cigarette use; exposure of the fetus or infant to toxins, including lead and PCBs; nutritional deficiencies and imbalances.
  • Other behavioral disorders, especially those that involve too much aggression (such as oppositional defiant or conduct disorder).

Because there is no objective test for ADHD, making a diagnosis can be hard. A number of tests and observations may be used. For this reason, it is crucial to make sure the doctor who evaluates you or your child has training in diagnosing ADHD.

To evaluate a child, the doctor will take a complete medical history and do a thorough exam to check for conditions that may mimic ADHD, such as hyperthyroidism or problems with vision, hearing, and sleeping. Because many symptoms show up at home or school rather than the doctor’s office, you may be asked to fill out questionnaires. Your child’s teacher may be interviewed. Your doctor will try to determine not only how the child behaves but also where the behavior occurs and how long it lasts. Children with ADHD have long-lasting symptoms that usually show up during stressful situations or situations that require sustained attention (such as schoolwork).

Diagnosing an adult with ADHD can be even more challenging. Because your symptoms would have appeared when you were young, your doctor may try to find out as much as possible about you when you were a child by getting information from your parents or former teachers. (If your symptoms are recent, you are not considered to have adult ADHD.) In addition to ruling out the other conditions mentioned above, your doctor may also check for depression and bipolar disorder, which can mimic ADHD.

Because the cause or causes of ADHD are not known, there is no way to prevent the condition. It can be managed with medication, behavioral therapy, and lifestyle changes.

How to treat ADHD, particularly in children, is a controversial subject. Current treatment includes therapy or medication, or a combination of both. In fact, studies show that medication by itself, without some kind of therapy, is not likely to improve a child’s outcome in the long-term. Family therapy, behavioral therapy, social skills training, and parent skills training are often used. Many parents investigate nutritional therapies (such as elimination diets or high-dose vitamins), but so far there is no clear evidence that they are effective. Preliminary evidence indicates that homeopathy and mind-body techniques, especially biofeedback, may help improve behavior in children with ADHD.

Lifestyle

 

  • Setting rules that are easily understood, developmentally appropriate, and not unduly harsh
  • Avoiding repeated commands once the child has been reminded of the consequences
  • Disciplining the child before becoming too angry and frustrated
  • Following discipline with praise when the child follows the rules and behaves appropriately

In addition to behavioral intervention at home, changes in the classroom environment (or work, in the case of adolescents or adults) are significant parts of the treatment plan. Hyperactive children do best in highly structured circumstances with a teacher experienced in handling their disruptive behavior and capable of adapting to their distinctive cognitive style. Interactions with groups are often very challenging for a child with ADHD. Social skills training, appropriate classroom placement, and clear rules of engagement with peers are essential.

Adults with ADHD may benefit from behavioral therapies, including cognitive remediation, couple therapy, and family therapy.

Drug Therapies

 

  • Stimulants — most often prescribed for ADHD.
    • Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta) — a stimulant and most commonly used medication for ADHD; effective in 75 – 80% of people with the condition; not recommended for children under 6 years of age
    • Dextroamphetamine (Dexadrine) — a stimulant that is effective in 70 – 75% of people with ADHD; not recommended for children under 3 years of age
    • Amphetamine/Dextroamphetamine (Adderall)
    • Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (Vyvanse)
  • Atomoxetine (Strattera) — the first nonstimulant medication approved to treat ADHD. Strattera increases the levels of both dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain. Strattera was first developed as an antidepressant and, as with all antidepressants, carries a “black box” warning that it may increase thoughts of suicide in young children and teenagers.

The most common side effects from these medications are trouble sleeping, decrease in appetite, and nervousness.

Complementary and Alternative Therapies

According to a recent survey, many parents use complementary and alternative treatments for their children with ADHD, with nutritional therapies being the most common. Although studies show conflicting results, if your child appears sensitive to certain foods, talk to your doctor about eliminating them for a brief period to see if his symptoms improve. Putting a child on any diet should be done only under the supervision of your doctor.

Diets

The Feingold diet was developed in the 1970s by Benjamin Feingold. He believed that artificial colors, flavors, and preservatives, as well as naturally occurring salicylates (chemicals similar to aspirin that are found in many fruits and vegetables), were a major cause of hyperactive behavior and learning disabilities in children. Studies examining the diet’s effect have been mixed. Most show no benefit, although there is some evidence that salicylates may play a role in hyperactivity in a small number of children. Because the Feingold diet is difficult to follow and also involves changes in family lifestyle (children are encouraged to participate in creating meals, for example), you should talk with your doctor before trying it.

Other dietary therapies may concentrate on eating foods that are high in protein and complex carbohydrates, and eliminating sugar and artificial sweeteners from the diet. However, studies show no relation between sugar and ADHD. In one study, children whose diets were high in sugar or artificial sweeteners behaved no differently than children whose diets were free of these substances. This was true even among children whose parents described them as having a sensitivity to sugar.

Some doctors who focus on nutrition say they see positive results when testing for food allergies and using an elimination diet. If you think your child might benefit from food allergy testing or an elimination diet, talk to a doctor who has experience in nutrition for children with ADHD.

Massage

Relaxation techniques and massage can reduce anxiety and activity levels in children and teens. In one study, teenage boys with ADHD who received 15 minutes of massage for 10 consecutive school days showed significant improvement in behavior and concentration compared to those who were guided in progressive muscle relaxation for the same duration of time.

Homeopathy

Before prescribing a remedy, homeopaths take into account a person’s constitutional type — your physical, emotional, and psychological makeup. An experienced homeopath assesses all of these factors when determining the most appropriate treatment for each individual.

In a study of 43 children with ADHD, those who received an individualized homeopathic remedy showed a significant improvement in behavior compared to children who received placebo. The homeopathic remedies found to be most effective included:

  • Stramonium — for children who are fearful, especially at night
  • Cina — for children who are irritable and dislike being touched; whose behavior is physical and aggressive
  • Hyoscyamus niger — for children who have poor impulse control, talk excessively or act overly exuberant

Biofeedback

Mind-body techniques such as hypnotherapy, progressive relaxation, and biofeedback may be useful in treating children and teens. Through these techniques, children are often able to learn coping skills they can use for the rest of their lives. These treatments allow children to gain a sense of control and mastery, increase self-esteem, and decrease stress.

Biofeedback operates on the principle that children can be trained to modify brain activity associated with ADHD and increase brain activity associated with attention. Several studies have shown positive results.

Prognosis and Complications

As many as half of all children with ADHD who receive appropriate treatment learn to control symptoms and function well as adults. Research suggests that children who receive treatment that combines therapies such as medication, behavioral therapy, and biofeedback are less likely to have behavioral problems as they grow up. In most cases, ADHD can be effectively managed throughout life.

References.

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Arnold LE, Pinkham SM, Votolato N. Does zinc moderate essential fatty acid and amphetamine treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder? J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2000;10:111-117.

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Blumenthal M, ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Boston, Mass: Integrative Medicine Communications; 1998:160, 107.

Burgess J, Stevens L, Zhang W, Peck L. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Clin Nutr.2000; 71(suppl):327S-330S.

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Frei H, von Ammon K, Thurneysen A. Treatment of hyperactive children: increased efficiency through modifications of homeopathic diagnostic procedure. Homeopathy. 2006 Jul;95(3):163-70.

Gutgesell H, Atkins D, Barst R, et al. Cardiovascular monitoring of children and adolescents receiving psychotropic drugs: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Committee on Congenital Cardiac Defects, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, American Heart Association. Circulation.1999; 99(7):979-82.

Heinrich H, Gevensleben H, Strehl U. Annotation: neurofeedback – train your brain to train behaviour. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007 Jan;48(1):3-16.

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One Comment

  1. Posted July 27, 2010 at 05:13 | Permalink

    As you can see from the above research references, there is substantial published data indicating use of nutrients and herbs can help those with ADHD and other illnesses. Nevertheless leaders of our “disease care high tech health industry” sound totally closed to the possibility that natural medicine offers long overlooked benefits. Innovation and breakthroughs in natural remedies and medicine will certainly not come from established disease care industry players. Consider the following excerpt from the Mayo Clinic website:

    “Vitamin or mineral supplements. While certain vitamins and minerals are necessary for good health, there’s no evidence that supplemental vitamins or minerals can reduce symptoms of ADHD. “Megadoses” of vitamins — doses that far exceed the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) — can be harmful.

    Herbal supplements. It’s unknown whether taking hypericum, ginseng, ginkgo, traditional Chinese medicine formulas or other herbal remedies help with ADHD, although some people claim they do.

    Essential fatty acids. These fats, which include omega-3 oils, are necessary for the brain to function properly. It’s too soon to say whether they may improve ADHD symptoms.

    Glyconutrients. The term “glyconutrients” refers to eight specific sugars that theoretically reduce symptoms by helping form important compounds called glycoproteins. While sugars are necessary for brain function, it isn’t clear whether glyconutrient supplements have any effect on ADHD.”

    Visit the Mayo Clinic website to see for yourself how closed minded the information sounds when touching on natural remedies … and how brief the information is on improving eating habits to increase nutrient dense uptake without toxins or dead calories [Click Here].

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  3. By Mental Disorders 101 on July 27, 2010 at 02:06

    ADHD ? Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder | Online Wellness ……

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